Introduction

Complementary to the regional broadband network, a deployment of borehole-installed, wide-dynamic range seismographic stations is being established along the Hayward Fault and throughout the San Francisco Bay toll bridges network. This network is a cooperative development of the BSL and the USGS, with support from USGS, Caltrans, EPRI, the University of California Campus/Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) program, LLNL, and LBNL (Figure 5.1 and Table 5.1). Efforts at ongoing development of the network have also recently been enhanced through coordinated efforts with the Mini-PBO project (Chapter 8, which is partially funded by NSF and by the member institutions of that project).

The purpose of the network is threefold: 1) to lower substantially the threshold of microearthquake detection, 2) to increase the recorded bandwidth for events along the Hayward fault, and 3) to obtain bedrock ground motion signals at the bridges from small earthquakes for investigating bridge responses to stronger ground motions. A lower detection threshold increases the resolution of the fault-zone seismic structure; allows seismologists to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of seismicity at magnitudes down to $M \sim > -1.0$, where earthquake rates are many times higher than those captured by surface sites; allows researchers to look for pathologies in seismicity patterns that may be indicative of the nucleation of large damaging earthquakes; and allows scientists to investigate fault and earthquake scaling, physics and processes in the San Francisco Bay Area. This new data collection will also contribute to improved working models for the Hayward fault. The bedrock ground motion recordings are also being used to provide input for estimating the likely responses of the bridges to large, potentially damaging earthquakes. Combined with the improved Hayward fault models, source-specific response calculations can be made as well.

The Hayward Fault Network (HFN) consists of two parts. The Northern Hayward Fault Network (NHFN) is operated by the BSL and currently consists of 25 stations, including those located on Bay Area bridges and at borehole sites of the Mini-PBO (MPBO) project. This network is considered part of the BDSN and uses the network code BK. The Southern Hayward Fault Network (SHFN) is operated by the USGS and currently consists of 5 stations. This network is considered part of the NCSN and uses the network code NC. This chapter is primarily focused on the NHFN and activities associated with the BSL operations.

Figure 5.1: Map showing the locations of the HFN stations operated by the BSL (NHFN - squares) and the USGS (SHFN - circles) and Mini-PBO stations (diamonds) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Operational sites are filled, while sites in progress are grey. Other instrumented boreholes are indicated as open symbols.
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