Introduction

The operation of the High Resolution Seismic Network (HRSN) at Parkfield, California began in 1987, as part of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiative known as the Parkfield Prediction Experiment (PPE) (Bakun and Lindh, 1985).

Figure 3.12 shows the location of the network, its relationship to the San Andreas fault, sites of significance from previous and ongoing research using the HRSN, double-difference relocated earthquake locations from 1987-1998, routine locations of seismicity from August 2002 to July 2003, some preliminary nonvolcanic tremor locations from January 2006 through June 2007, and the epicenter of the 1966 and 2004 M6 earthquakes that motivated much of the research. The HRSN records exceptionally high-quality data, owing to its 13 closely spaced three-component borehole sensors (generally emplaced in the extremely low attenuation and background noise environment at 200 to 300 m depth (Table 3.8), its high-frequency wide bandwidth recordings (0-100 Hz; 250 sps), and its low magnitude detection threshold (below magnitude $0.0$ Ml).

Several aspects of the Parkfield region make it ideal for the study of small earthquakes and nonvolcanic tremors and their relationship to tectonic processes and large earthquakes. These include the fact that the network spans the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) experimental zone, the nucleation region of earlier repeating magnitude 6 events and a significant portion of the transition from locked to creeping behavior on the San Andreas fault, the availability of three-dimensional P and S velocity models (Michelini and McEvilly, 1991), a long-term HRSN seismicity catalogue (complete to very low magnitudes and that includes at least half of the M6 seismic cycle), a well-defined and simple fault segment, the existence of deep nonvolcanic tremor (NVT) activity, and a relatively homogeneous mode of seismic energy release as indicated by the earthquake source mechanisms (over 90$\%$ right-lateral strike-slip).

Figure 3.12: Map showing the San Andreas Fault trace and locations of the 13 Parkfield HRSN stations, the repeating M2 SAFOD targets (a 4 km by 4 km dashed box surrounds the SAFOD zone), and the epicenters of the 1966 and 2004 M6 Parkfield main shocks. Also shown are preliminary locations of some recently detected nonvolcanic tremors in the Cholame, CA area (January 2006 to June 2007), routine locations of earthquakes recorded by the expanded and upgraded 13 station HRSN (small open circles) and locations of events recorded by the earlier vintage 10 station HRSN relocated using an advanced 3-D double-differencing algorithm (gray points) applied to a cubic splines interpolated 3-D velocity model (Michelini and McEvilly, 1991).
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In a series of journal articles and Ph.D. theses, the cumulative, often unexpected, results of UC Berkeley's HRSN research efforts (see: http://www.seismo.berkeley.edu/seismo/faq/parkfield_bib.html) trace the evolution of a new and exciting picture of the San Andreas fault zone responding to its plate-boundary loading, and they are forcing new thinking on the dynamic processes and conditions within the fault zone at the sites of recurring small earthquakes and deep nonvolcanic tremors (Nadeau and Dolenc, 2005).

The Parkfield area has also become an area of focus of the EarthScope Project (http://www.earthscope.org) through the SAFOD experiment (http://www.icdp-online.de/sites/sanandreas/news/news1.html), and the HRSN is playing a vital role in this endeavor. SAFOD is a comprehensive project to drill into the hypocentral zone of repeating M $\sim$ 2 earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault at a depth of about 3 km. The goals of SAFOD are to establish a multi-stage geophysical observatory in close proximity to these repeating earthquakes, to carry out a comprehensive suite of down-hole measurements in order to study the physical and chemical conditions under which earthquakes occur, and to monitor and exhume rock, fluid, and gas samples for extensive laboratory studies (Hickman et al., 2004).

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