Subsections

Automated Time-Domain Spike Identification for MT Data

Karl N. Kappler

Introduction

A method of automatic time domain spike identification for magnetotelluric array data is outlined. The algorithm exploits the simultaneous nature of geomagnetic variations at sites far (100's of km) away from one another. Data time series for instruments of the same field-type at various locations are windowed and condensed into time series of variances over the windows. Time series of the ratios of these variances are then scanned for outliers, where the definition of outlier is defined by an adaptive threshold. Examples are shown applying the method to a pair of MT stations in Central California, each with orthogonal electric dipoles and induction coil magnetometers. The method successfully identifies windows contaminated by spikes, DC offsets, and other strange variations. Only days where less than 10% of the data are contaminated are treated. A separate, but similar method not discussed here is employed to eliminate days where more than 10% of the data are contaminated.

Spike Identification

Magnetotellurics (MT) relies upon the recording of tiny variations in the earth's magnetic field. The spike identification is predicated on the assumption that these variations are horizontally polarized (spatially uniform) over 100's of km. In the absence of overwhelming noise, this implies that sensors at different sites will be strongly correlated, with the magnetic fields being nearly identical and the electric fields differing by a scale factor which depends on the local conductivity structure. This scale factor is approximately stationary as evidenced by the stability of intersite transfer functions [Eisel and Egbert 2002]. Figure 2.11 shows orthogonal electric and magnetic field data sampled at the earth's surface at two sites a distance of 120km apart. For a detailed description of the sites see [Kappler 2005]. Note the similarity in variations between channels of same orientation and field type, as well as identical scaling of the magnetic components, compared to the scale factor difference in the electric channels. This similarity can be seen to extend from periods of hours to seconds as shown by repeatedly zooming in on the data in Figures 2.12, 2.13, and 2.14.

Figure 2.11: A plot of mean-subtracted array data for a full day in 2004. Electric fields are shown in red and magnetic fields in blue. Plots alternate between PKD and SAO at each field polarity. Y values are in counts with axis limits shown to the left. The vertical lines mark the domain boundaries of Figure 2.12.
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Figure 2.12: Detrended magnetic array data for one hour of the day shown in Figure 2.11. Plots alternate between PKD and SAO at each field polarity. The vertical lines mark the domain boundaries of Figure $\hyperref{}{}{}{simult2mins}$.
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Figure 2.13: Detrended time series of y-polarity magnetic channels for two minutes within the hour shown in Figure $\hyperref{}{}{}{simult1hr}$. The vertical lines mark the domain boundaries of $\hyperref{}{}{}{simult5sec}$
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Figure 2.14: Detrended time series of y-polarity magnetic channels for 5 seconds within the window shown in Figure $\hyperref{}{}{}{simult2mins}$.
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Figure 2.15: Each day, 450 windows of 256s length are input to calculate variance ratios. The daily median is shown above. Note the relative anisotropy between sites.
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This inherent similarity in the fields is exploited to identify windows in time when the array is not functioning correctly. Magnetotelluric data is prone to sudden sharp variations in signal of natural origin. These variations can be differentiated from variations whose origins are local noise by comparing channels at different sites, and flagging sharp variations which are not present arraywide. A variety of statistics can be used to identify spikes. The statistic used here is simply the variance of each array channel over short time windows. The variance can be calculated directly in each time window, or alternatively, the variance of the first difference data can be calculated. The ratio of the variance in channels which record the same field type at the same orientation should be stationary about some typical value; in the case of magnetic fields, this value should be 1. In the case of electric fields, the value will be approximately stationary around some value, which reflects site effects such as local field distortion phenomena. The stationarity is only approximate because the observed fields' ratios will vary as a function of frequency, and hence electric field variance ratios will wander somewhat with the frequency content of the incident radiation. We approximately account for this by scaling the electric field data by a 'site factor' s$_{i}$ which scales the i$^{th}$ channel such that non-contaminated windows of channel i data have variance nearly equal to the variance of the same time window at a reference site. Formally, with the electric field data scaled in V/m and the magnetic field data still in instrument counts (effectively dB/dt), the time series of data collected by the i$^{th}$ sensor S$_{i}$ is represented as an N-point time series x$_{i}$(t). The N-point time series is chopped into windows of length L and overlap V, resulting in a total of k=floor(N/(L-V)) windows. Thus x$_{i}$(t) is represented as X$_{i}$(t), a KxL array, whose j$^{th}$ row is the contiguous stream of data centered at t=j*(L-V). The last row of X is taken as the final L points of x in order to avoid zero-padding. The array X is then contracted to a vector v whose j$^{th}$ element is the variance of the j$^{th}$ row of X. We thus obtain a windowed variance time series v$_{i}$(t) for each sensor, where the time increment for v is (L-V) times the sampling period of x. In our example, we use day-long time series, sampled at 1Hz (hence N=86400), and set L=256, V=64, thus k=450.

The choice of window length should be sufficiently wide to account for possible intersite timing errors and FIR filter noise convolved on top of spikes, but sufficiently narrow that moderate sized spikes drive the window variance well above the value it would have without a spike. To apply the electric field scale factors, we look at the ratios of the v$_{i}$ for approximately parallel electrodes at the different sites. In our example, we use SAO as the reference site, and point-by-point ratios of v$_{ExSAO}$ to v$_{ExPKD}$ are examined together with point-by-point ratios of v$_{EySAO}$ to v$_{EyPKD}$. Each cardinal sensor orientation is examined separately because of possible site distortion effects. Figure $\hyperref{}{}{}{SiteEffect}$ shows the variance ratios over a four-year window. Note that there is a significant difference in the ratio amplitudes between the two cardinal orientations, a median of 28 for EW and 148 for NS, implying a relative electrical anisotropy between the two sites. Some seasonal effects are also apparent, as are offsets due to instrument swaps, or times when sites were not functioning properly. In general however, the ratio is reasonably stable, and stationary on a day-to-day basis. The EW electric field at PKD is thus scaled by $\sqrt{28}$ or equivalently v$_{EewPKD}$ is scaled by 28, and similarly for the NS component. With E field data appropriately scaled, we recalculate the v$_{i}$(t), but this time the rows of X$_{i}$ are first-differenced before variances are calculated. Windows of anomalous variance can now be flagged. Each v(t) is associated with a two digit code, one digit for field type (E or H) and one for orientation. Channels with the same codes are grouped together (we assume that sites are not significantly rotated w.r.t one another). Within each pairing, the log ratio r of the variance time series is calculated:

\begin{displaymath}
\mathbf{r}_{i,j}(t)=log_{10}(\frac{\mathbf{v}_{i}(t)}{\mathbf{v}_{j}(t)}) \forall t
\end{displaymath} (2.1)

For each grouping, the median-subtracted time series r(t) is searched independantly over each day. An anomalous window at time t is flagged if r(t) is greater than a threshold. The threshold is chosen adaptively each day as M times the two-sided $\alpha$-trimmed standard deviation of r. The two-sided $\alpha$-trimmed standard deviation of a time series r(t) is defined as the standard deviation of the collection of all elements of r which are larger than the $\alpha$/2$^{th}$ percentile and less than the (100-$\alpha$/2)$^{th}$. Using this measure prevents a few very large spikes from driving the standard deviation up so high that smaller spikes are not caught. Practically speaking, n=5 works well for magnetic fields, and n=6 for electrics, with $\alpha$ set to 0.03. Plotted in Figure 2.16 are some examples of the spike ID method. On the left are shown one day's worth of r(t). The horizontal lines denote the M $\alpha$-trimmed standard deviation thresholds. The vertical dashed line coincides with a time-window where a channel has been flagged as having a spike. The corresponding plot on the right shows the channel with spike and its 'sister channel' at the other site. The channels used for the numerator of the ratio are shown in blue, and the denominator channels are shown in green. The algorithm described only identifies windows where the variance ratio between two channels is anomalous. Deciding which of the two channels corresponds to non-physical data is another matter. For spikes and sharp offsets, the channel with more energy in the scaled time series is selected as the offending data. One need beware that a malfunctioning amplifier in some system component could result in a channel with a signature smaller than average variance. In this case, the algorithm will flag a normally functioning channel as spikey.

Conclusions

The method seems to work well. It has application in the monitoring of array health, and possibly in other mutichannel systems where channels typically record stationary time series. There are a very few cases where the method misidentifies data as being a spike. Addition of a hard threshold insisting that spikes be ID-ed as windows having v greater than 0.3 or M alpha trimmed stds, whichever is greater, seems to protect agianst this.There are several parameters which control the algorithm; these are: initial time series lengths (N), window length (L), window overlap (V), whether or not to 'first-difference the data' (boolean), $\alpha$ (percent of data to reject when calculating thresholds), and M, the threshold multiplier. A code has been written which incorporates these variables into a few simple scripts. Four years of data at 1Hz can be rapidly despiked in a short amount of time.

References

Egbert, G.D., Booker, J.R., Multivariate Analysis of Geomagnetic Array Data 1. The Response Space, Journal of Geophys. Res., V94 No.B10 pp14227-14247, 1989

Eisel M., Egbert G.D., (2001), On the stability of magnetotelluric transfer function estimates and the reliability of their variances, Geophys. J. Int., 144, pp65-82, 2001

Kappler, K.N., Morrison, H.F., Egbert, G.D., Parkfield-Hollister Electromagentic Monitoring Array, BSL Annual Report, 2005-06

Figure 2.16: Variance ratio time series, together with adaptive threshold bars (left) raw time series (right) for window in time denoted by vertical line on left.
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