Problems in Hydrogeology:
How fast does groundwater flow?
In this course we will review the theory and observations related to rate
at which groundwater moves. In particular we will be intersted
in the geological processes that govern permeability. The course will
end with an attempt to evaluate the permeability of the Martian
crust. No textbook is required;
original papers will be assigned for reading.
Instructors: Chi Wang and Michael Manga
First meeting: Wednesday, January 22, 1:30 pm
Class meeting times: Wednesdays 1:30 pm
Room: McCone 401
A preliminary syllabus(with readings):
Overview of linear poroelasticity (1 week):
Introduction: Fundamentals of groundwater transport, solute transport and heat transport
number 1) (1 week)
- Permeability models (1 week)
- Is Darcy's law valid at low permeabilities? Neuzil, C.E. (1986) Groundwater flow
in low permeability environments, Water Resour. Res., vol. 22, 1163-1195; Neuzil, C.E. (1994) How permeable are clays and shales? Water Resour. Res., vol. 30, 145-150.
- Selected reading from the book Fault
Mechanics and Transport Properties of Rocks, edited by B. Evans and T.-F. Wong,
Academic Press (1992)
- Scale-dependence of permeability (1 week):
- Schulze-Makuch, D., D.A. Carlson, D.S. Cherkauer, and P. Malik (1999)
Scale dependency of hydraulic conductivity in heterogeneous media.
Ground Water, vol. 37: 904-919.pdf
- Rovey, C.W., and D.S. Cherkauer (1995). Scale dependency of hydraulic
conductivity measurements. Ground Water, vol. 33: 769-780.pdf
- Guima, J., L. Vives, and J. Carrera (1995) A discussion of
scale effects on hydrualic conductivity at a granitic site
(El Berrocal, Spain). Geophys. Res. Lett., vol. 22:
- Time-dependence of permeability (2 weeks)
- Geochemical effects
- Fontaine, F.J., M. Rabinowicz, and J. Boulegue (2001)
Permeability changes due to mineral diagenesis in fractured crust:
implications for hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges.
Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., vol. 184: 407-425. pdf
- Bolton, E.W., A.C. Lasaga, and D.M. Rye (1999)
Long-term flow/chemistry feedback in a porous medium with heterogenous
permeability: Kinetic control of dissolution and precipitation.
Amer. J. Sci., vol. 299: 1-68.
- Lowell, R.P., P. VanCappellan, and L.N. Germanovitch (1993)
Silica precipitation in fracrures and the evolution of permeability
in hydrothermal upflow zones. Science, vol. 260: 192-194.
- Lowell, R.P. and Y. Yao (2002) Anhydrite precipitation and
the extent of hydrothermal recharge zones at ocean ridge crests.
J. Geophy. Res., vol. 107, doi:10.1029/2001JB001289. pdf
- Steefel, C.I., and A.C. Lasaga (1992) Putting transport into water-rock
interaction models, Geology, vol. 20, 680-684.
- Physical effects
- Sclater, J.G. (2003) Ins and outs on the ocean floor, Nature,
vol. 421, 590-591.
- Fisher, A.T. et al. (2003) Hydrothermal recharge and discharge across
50 km guided by seamounts on a young ridge flank, Nature,
vol. 421, 618-621.
- Connolly, P., and J. Cosgrove (1999)
Prediction of fracture-induced permeability and fluid flow in the crust
using experimental stress data.
AAPG Bull. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., vol. 83: 757-777.
- Cartwright (1994) Episodic basin-wide fluid expulsion from geopressured
shale sequences in the North Sea basin, Geology, vol. 22, 447-450.
- Roberts and Nunn (1995) Episodic fluid expulsion from geopressured
sediments, Marine Petroleum Geology, vol. 12, 195-204.
- Wang and Xie (1998) Hydrofracturing and episodic fluid flow in shale-rich
basins - a numerical study, AAPG, vol. 82, 1857-1869.
- Pore pressure and liquefaction in earthquakes (1 week):
- Manga, M., E.E. Brodsky, and M. Boone (2003) Response of streamflow
to multiple earthquakes, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.
- Terzaghi et al. (1996) Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, 3rd edition, section 20.9
- Holzer, Youd and Hanks (1989) Dynamics of liquefaction during the 1987
Superstition Hills, California, earthquake, Science,, 247, 56-59.
- Law, Cao and He (1990) An energy approach for assessing seismic
liquefaction potential, Canadian Geotechnical J., 27, 320-329.
- Chi Wang will also talk about
``Coseismic ground motion, water-level change and
liquefaction in sedimentary basins - Field-based relations from the 1999
Chi-Chi (Mw=7.5) earthquake, Taiwan''; here is a draft of this work
Seismic waves and fluid flow (2 weeks):
- reference: Wang (2000) Theory of linear poroelasticity, Princeton
Earthquakes, pore pressure, and permeability (2 weeks)
- Dvorkin, J. et al. (1994) The squirt-flow mechanism - Macroscopic description. Geophysics, vol.
- Berryman, J. (1988)
Seismic wave attenuation in fluid-saturated porous media. PAGEOPH,
vol. 128: 423-432.
- Johnson, D.L., J. Koplik and R. Dashen (1987) Theory of dynamic permeability
and tortuosity in fluid saturated porous media, J. Fluid Mech.,
vol. 176, 379-402.
- Sheng and Zhou (1988) Dynamic permeability in porous media,
Review Letters, 61, 1591-1594. also Comments by Johnson and Reply by Sheng et al. (1989) Phys.
Rev. Lett., 63, 580-581.
- Biot (1956a) Theory of propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-saturated
porous solid, I. Low frequency range, J. Acoust. Soc., Am., 28, 168-178.
- Biot (1956b) Theory of propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-saturated
porous solid, II. High frequency range, J. Acoust. Soc., Am., 28, 179-191.
Applications of Poroelasticity (1 week1)
- Blanpied, M.L., C.J. Marone, D.A. Lockner, J.D. Byerlee, and others (1998)
Quantitative measure of the variation in fault rheology due to fluid-rock
interactions. J. Geophys. Res., vol. 103: 9691-9712.
- Blanpied, M.L., D.A. Lockner, J.D. Byerlee (1992)
An earthquake mechanism based on rapid sealing of faults. Nature,
vol. 358: 574-576.
- Crampin et al. (2002) Indication of high
pore-fluid pressures in a seismically active fault zone. Geophys. J. Int.,
vol. 151: f1-f5.
- Streit and Cox (2001) Fluid pressures at hypocenters of moderate to large
earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 106, 2235-2243.
Permeability of the Earth's crust (1 week)
- Cocco and Rice (2002) Pore pressure and poroelasticity effects in Coulomb
stress analysis of earthquake interactions, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 107, B2, 10.1029.
- Segall. P. (1985) Stress and subsidence resulting from subsurface fluid
withdrawal in the epicentral region of the 1983 Colinga earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 90, 6801-6816.
- Bachrach et al. (2001) Liquefaction and dynamic poroelasticity,
J. Geophys. Res., vol. 106, 13,515-13,526.
Permeability of the Martian crust
(2 weeks: April 16 and May 7)
- Eichhubl and Boles (2000) Rates of fluid flow in
fault systems - evidence for episodic rapid flow in the Miocene Montery
formation, Coastal California, Amer. J. Sc., vol. 300: 571-600.
- Ingebritsen, S.E., and C.E. Manning (1999)
Geological implications of a permeability-depth curve for the continental
Geology,vol. 27: 1107-1110.
- Manning, C.E., and S.E. Ingebritsen (1999)
Permeability of the continental crust: Implications of geothermal data and
metamorphic systems. Rev. Geophys., vol. 37: 127-150.
For April 16, please read
- Clifford, S.M., and T.J. Parker (2001) The evolution of the Martian
hydrosphere: Implications for the fate of a primordial ocean and the
current state of the northern plains. Icarus, vol. 154:
For May 7, we will discuss one paper and then review/summarize
the issues discussed in class. In particular, what are the important
and outstanding issues in quantifying subsurface flow? What is most
important for understanding groundwater flow on Mars?
Last modified 12 December 2002
- Gaidos, E. (2001) Cryovolcanism and the recent flow of liquid water
on Mars, Icarus, vol. 153, 218-223. pdf
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