Problems in Hydrogeology:
Geothermal processes and geysers
In this course we will begin with an introduction to flow in porous media
(including basic hydrogeology, solute transport, heat transport), poroelasticity,
and the Navier-Stokes equations. We will then read selected papers
that address processes in geothermal systems including geysers. No textbook is required,
however, as a reference we will cover quite a bit of the material in Ingebritsen et al. (Groundwater
in Geological Processes);
original papers will be assigned for reading.
Instructors: Michael Manga and Chi Wang
First meeting: January 22 (Wednesday), 11:00 am
Room: McCone 220
A preliminary syllabus (with readings to follow):
Week 1: Introduction to flow in porous media
- Ingebritsen, S.E. et al. (2006) Groundwater in geologic processes, Cambridge Univ Press, chapter 1.
Week 2: Poroelasticity
- Wang, H. (2000) Linear poroelasticity, Princeton Univ Press
- Ingebritsen, S.E. et al. (2006) Groundwater in geologic processes, Cambridge Univ Press, chapter 2.
- Wang, C.-Y. and M. Manga (2010) Earthquake hydrology, Springer, Appendix D. online version
Week 3: Solute and heat transport
Week 4: Navier-Stokes equations and two-phase flow
- Jamet, D., Diffuse interface models in fluid dynamics
Week 5: Magmatic-hydrothermal systems (Kristen, Noah)
- Ingebritsen, S.E. et al. (2006) Groundwater in geologic processes, Cambridge Univ Press, chapter 8.
Week 6: Submarine geothermal systems (Michael, Esther)
- Ingebritsen, S.E. et al. (2006) Groundwater in geologic processes, Cambridge Univ Press, chapter 13.
Week 7: Boiling and bubble collapse (Danny, Carolina)
- Ichihara, M. and T. Nishimura (2009) Pressure impulses generated by bubbles interacting with ambient perturbation, 731-752
- Plesset, M.S., and A. Prosperetti (1977) Bubble dynamics and cavitation, Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics 9, 145-185.
Week 8: Seismic and acoustic observations of geothermal systems (Sanjeevi, Danny)
- Kedar, S., H. Kanamori, and B. Sturtevant (1998) Bubble collapse as the source of tremor at Old Faithful Geyser,
J. Geophys. Res., 103, 24,283-24,299.
- Kedar, S., B. Sturtevant and H. Kanamori (1996) The origin of harmonic tremor at Old Faithful Geyser, Nature, 379, 708-711.
Week 9: Multiphase system thermodynamics (Steve, Noah)
- Lu, X. and S.W. Kieffer (2009) Thermodynamics and mass transport in multicomponent,
multiphase H2O systems of planetary interest, Annual Reviews of Earth Planet. Sci., 37, 449-477. pdf
- Lu et al. (2005) Measurements in a low temperature CO2-driven geysering well, viewed in relation to natural geysers, Geothermics, 34, 389-410.
Week 10: Lake eruptions (Zheming, Avinash)
- Zhang, Y., and G.W. Kling (2006) Dynamics of lake eruptions and possible ocean eruptions,
Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science, 34, 293-324.
- Kieffer, S.W. (1989) Geologic nozzles. Reviews of Geophysics, 27, 3-38. pdf
Week 11: Geyser observations (Michael, Avinash)
- Lone Star 1 and Lone Star 2
- Vandemeulebrouck et al. (2013) GRL
Week 12: Cavity models for geysers (Esther, Chi)
- Belousov et al. (2013) Geology, 41, 387-390.
- Steinberg, G.S., Merzhanov, G.S., and Steinberg, A.S.
(1982) Geyser process: Theory, modeling, field experiment.
Part 1.Theory of the geyser process, Modern Geology,
Week 13: Porous flow models for geysers (Kristen,Steve)
- Ingebritsen, S.E., Rojstaczer, S.A. (1993) Controls on geyser periodicity.
Science, 262, 889-892. pdf
- Ingebritsen, S.E., and S.A. Rojstaczer (1996) Geyser periodicity and the response of geysers to small strains in the Earth. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 21,891-21,907. pdf
- Namiki et al., in review
Week 14: Response of geysers to tides, earthquakes and weather (Carolina, Sanjeevi)
- Hurwitz et al. (2014) Triggering and modulation of geyser eruptions in Yellowstone National
Park by earthquakes, earth tides and weather, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi: 10.1002/2013JB010803. pdf
- Silver, P.G., and N.Y. Valette-Silver (1992)
Detection of hydrothermal precursors to large northern California
earthquakes. Science, 257, 1363-1368. pdf
- Rojstaczer, S., Galloway, D.L., Ingebritsen, S.E., and D.M. Rubin (2003)
Variability in geyser eruptive timing and its causes:
Yellowstone National Park, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, article
number 1953. pdf
- Husen, S., Taylor, R., Smith, R.B., and H. Healser (2004)
Changes in geyser eruption behavior and remotely triggered seismicity in Yellowstone National Park produced by the 2002 M 7.9 Denali fault earthquake, Alaska. Geology, 32, 537-540. link to paper
When reviewing and presenting papers please begin by stating the
question(s) the authors is(are) trying to answer. Is there a controversy?
Is there a new observation that the authors are trying to understand?
What makes the problem interesting? Next explain what they did
(ideally highlighting what is new). No need to explain all the math
or methods but it is good to explain when and where critical assumptions
and approximations are being made.
Then, summarize the results focussing only on what you think is
interesting or what matters (lots of papers have lots of extraneous
content that is included for completeness).
Next, summarize what they learned and
whether the question was answered. End with your thoughts on what
is needed to make further progress or a critism of the work.
Left) Strokkur geyser -- erupts every 3-4 minutes (at least during my visit during the 2008 IAVCEI meeting). Right) Strokkur (right) and the Great Geysir (left). Geysers get their name from this geyser -- Geysir erupts about twice/day.
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